Advantages And Disadvantages of Expert Systems
Advantages of Expert System To Managers:
Managers who use ES can expect to make better decisions by considering more
alternatives, applying a higher level of logic in evaluating the alternatives,
having more time the evaluation, and achieving a consistency in the decisions
that are reached.
a. Consider More Alternatives:
An Expert System can enable a manager to consider more alternatives in the
process of solving a problem.
b. Apply A Higher Level Of Logic:
A manager using an Expert Systems can apply the same logic that of a leading
experts in the field.
c. More Time To Evaluate Decision Results:
The manager can obtain advice from the Expert Systems quickly, leaving more to
weigh the possible results before action has to be taken.
d. More Consistent Solutions:
The computer does not have good days and bad days as the human managers do. Once
the reasoning is programmed into the computer, the manager knows that the same
solution process will be followed for each problem.
Advantages of Expert System To The Firm:
a. Better Performance For The Firm:
As the firm's managers extend their problem solving abilities through use of
Expert Systems, the firm's control mechanism is improved. The firm is better
able to meet its objectives.
b. Maintain Control Over The Firm's Knowledge:
Expert Systems afford the opportunity of making the experienced employee's
knowledge more available to newer, less experienced employees and of keeping
that knowledge in the firm longer, even after the employees have left.
Disadvantages of Expert Systems:
a. The Knowledge Engineering Bottleneck:
The enormous time and efforts required extracting the expert's knowledge and
translating it into IF/THEN rules upon which an expert system is based.
Transferring expertise to the Expert System is sometimes difficult because
experts cannot always explain how they know what they know. Often experts are
not aware of their complete reasoning process. Experience has given them a feel
for the problem, and they just "know".
b. The Programming Bottleneck:
Programming the system and maintaining the code is very difficult.
Even if the expert can explain the whole reasoning process, automating that
process may be impossible. The process ^nay be too complex, requiring an
excessive number of rules, or it may be too vague or imprecise.
c. The Learning Problem:
The Expert System is unable to incorporate the changing relationships in the
While using an Expert System, keep in mind that it can solve only the problems
for which it was designed. It can't deal with inconsistency or a newly
encountered problem situation. An Expert System can't learn from previous
experience and can't apply previously acquired expertise to new problems the way
d. Judgment Problem:
Expert Systems cannot apply the judgment and intuition, which is an Important
ingredient for problem solving. An Expert System has no common sense or
There is no doubt that-curing the next few years effective Expert Systems will
continue to -be successfully applied. However, the accomplishment will not come
easily. Among all of the possible application domains, the one that are selected
will be the ones that best meet the firm's overall objectives in terms of
maximizing payoff and minimizing risk of failure.