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# Bias Definition/Meaning:

1. The d.c. component of an a.c. signal.

2. The d.c. voltage used to switch on or off a bipolar transistor or diode (see forward bias, reverse bias), or the d.c. gate-source voltage used to control the d.c. drain-source current in a field-effect transistor. The word is also used as a verb: to switch.

3. In statistical usage, a source of error that cannot be reduced by increasing sample size. It is systematic as opposed to random error.

Sources of bias include (a) bias in sampling, when members of the sample are not fully representative of the population being studied; (b) nonresponse bias in sample surveys, when an appreciable proportion of those questioned fail to reply; (c) question bias, a tendency for the wording of the question to invite an incorrect reply; (d) interviewer bias, a problem of personal interviewing when respondents try to reply in the way the interviewer is thought to expect.

A narrower definition of bias in statistical analysis (see statistical methods) is the difference between the mean of an estimating formula and the true value of the quantity being estimated. The estimate

i(xi - x)2/n

for the variance of a population is biased, but is unbiased when n is replaced by (n - 1)

## Near by Terms:

Bias
Biconditional
Biconnected Graph
Bifurcation
Bisection (one-to-one onto function)
Binary Chop
Binary Code
Binary-coded decimal (BCD)
Binary-Coded Octal
Binary Counter
Binary Digit (bit)
Binary Encoding
Binary Notation
Binary Operation
Binary Relation
Binary Search Algorithm (logarithmic search algorithm; bisection algorithm)
Binary Search Tree
Binary Sequence
Binary Signal
Binary Symmetric Channel (BSQ)
Binary System
Binary Tree
Binary-Tree Representation
Bind
Binomial Distribution
Bipartite Graph
Bipolar Integrated Circuit
Bipolar Signal
Bipolar Transistor
Biquinary Code (quibinary code)
Bisection Algorithm
Bistable
BISYNC
Bit
Bit Density
Bit Handling
Bit Mapping
Bit Matrix
Bit Rate
Bit-Slice Architecture
Bit String
Bit Stuffing

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