Definition and Characteristics of system:
Definition and Explanation:
The term system is derived from the Greek word System, which means an organized relationship among functioning units or components. A system exists because it is designed to achieve one or more objectives. We come into daily contacts with the transportation system, the telephone system, the accounting system, the production system, and for over three decades, the computer system.
A system is a set of interrelated elements that collectively work together to achieve some common purpose or goal.
The study of system concepts has three basic implications
A system must be design to achieve a predetermined objective.
Interrelationship and interdependence must exist among the components.
The objectives of the organization as a whole have a higher priority than the objectives of its subsystems. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts; 2+2 = 5
Or a system is an assembly of parts where
The parts or components are connected together in an organized way.
The parts or components are affected by being in the system.
The assembly does something.
The assembly has been identified by a person as being of special interest.
Characteristics of a System:
Organization implies structure and order. It is the arrangement of components that help to achieve objectives. For example, a computer system is designed around an input device, a central processing unit, an output device, and one or more storage units. When linked together they work as a whole system for producing information.
Interaction refers to the manner in which each component functions with other component of the system. In a computer system, for example, the central processing unit must interact with the input device to solve a problem. In turn, the main memory holds the program and data that the arithmetic unit uses for computation.
The interrelationship between these components enables the computer to perform smooth functions.
Interdependence means that parts of the system depend on one another. They are coordinated and linked together according to a plan. One subsystem depends on the input of another subsystem for proper functioning; i.e. the output of one subsystem is, the required input for another subsystem. This interdependence is crucial in systems work.
Integration is concerned with how a system is tied together. It is more than sharing a physical part or location. It means that parts of the system work together within the system even though each part performs a unique function. Successful integration will typically produce a synergistic effect and greater total impact than if each component works separately.
e. Central Objective:
The last quality is central objective. Objectives may be real or stated. It is very common for an organization to state one objective and operates to achieve another. This important point is that users must know the central objective of a computer application early in the analysis for a successful design and conversion.