Expert Systems (ES):
Definition and Explanation:
Both in management information system (MIS) and decision support system (DSS) one thing is common, both are dependent on decision rules and
judgments, which are kept in mind by the decision maker.
On the other hand, Expert Systems (ES) also called knowledge-based systems are
based on decision rules and judgment, which are made explicit by the decision
makers. These rules and judgments, along with procedures processes, can be
obtained by interview and dialogue with the decision makers who are usually the
subject area specialists. When these rules, logics, and procedures are put on
the computer, it becomes possible to use these procedures for being applied in
the real line situation even by comparatively inexperienced people.
Software which is used to store data relevant to a particular subject and to
provide solutions to problems requiring judgment based on that data. The concept
stems from Artificial Intelligence (AI) research, the data being built up by
experts in a particular field such that non-experts may subsequently use the
system to guide them to a correct solution.
Artificial intelligence (AI):
- A computer Is an electronic device that processes the data
by following the instructions given in the program at fast
speed, by drawing a large memory.
- It can also be programmed to draw certain types of
conclusion on the basis of input.
- It receives inputs and draw results or conclusions on the
basis of computations It performs.
- For this reason, the abilities that can imparted to
computers to enable them to display "human like intelligent"
behavior Is commonly referred as "Artificial Intelligence".
Definition and Explanation:
It is a latest technology which is used in some electronic machines. These
machines can think, decide themselves arid communicate like human beings.
Artificial Intelligence has been called the study
of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment people
are better and people are much better then computer at:
- Learning from experience
- Making sense out of information
- Responding in an appropriate way
- Reasoning the relative Importance of different aspects
- Understanding people's behavior
Artificial intelligence is the study of making a
- To learn from experience
- Making sense out of ambiguous information
- Responding in an appropriate way
- Recognizing the relative importance of matters
- Understanding human behavior
Artificial intelligence is the capability of a
computer system to provide a
level of performance that reflects human like intelligence.
Artificial intelligence is knowledge based systems
that mimic or reflects
the human decisions making process.
Artificial intelligence is the concepts that
computers can be; programmed to imitate certain features of human
Evolution/history of Artificial Intelligence:
- The term artificial intelligence was coined in the mid
1950's by John McCarthy at a conference at Dartmouth College.
- One of the features of that conference was a software
processor that manipulated symbols instead of numbers
- Developer claimed that the processor which proved several
mathematician theorems possessed a certain amount of "artificial
- As artificial intelligence evolved, it was put to work
solving a number of tasks, like prove theorems, solve complex
problems, in the filed or gaming as researchers developed "AI"
programs to play and win at tic-tac-toe checkers and chess.
- Since most types of tasks performed by the programs involved
in these applications required human intelligence, most of the
people assumed that such programs possessed artificial
- The assumptions was not always correct as some of the early
chess programs relied more on the brute force of the computer
than they did on methods of intelligence.
- As chess programs incorporated, these heuristics, they truly
embedded AI techniques. Better yet they improved dramatically
challenging humans at the expert level class in chess.
Working of Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial intelligence software works by creating
a knowledge bas that consists of facts, concepts and the
relationships between them and then searches It using pattern making
techniques to solve problems.
a. Rules of thumb or heuristics are important.
A simple example might be milk in first when making tea. This is a rule of thumb that how to make a cup of tea. Similarly a simple business example programmed into many accounting packages might be: don't allow credit to a customer who has exceeded their credit limit.
b. Pattern making finds similarities between objects
events or processes that may not be clear if items are only
understood in terms of their differences.
- Computer systems are now recognized as a suitable device for
use in the decision making process in a number of areas.
- Information is necessary or essential to decision making and
computerization has vastly changed the ways in which information
can be handled.
- However the rote of artificial intelligence is actually
taking decisions is infect largely passive.
- The computer will give you the information you want,
provided it is requested in the right way.
- It will give you the information which is accurate.
- It processes it according to instructions given but it can't
do the following:
Artificial intelligence can't do the following:
- Tell the users how to take decisions
- Replace the feelings or rules of thumb based on past
experience which may determine how decisions are taken in first
- Weigh up the relative value of two different pieces of
- Weigh up the qualitative factors in taking a particular
- Handle uncertainty very well
- Access whether the results derived from execution" of its
programmed instructions Is adequate to a problem.
Today, the main areas of Artificial Intelligence research are
Expert Systems, problem solving, natural languages, and robotics.
These Artificial Intelligence systems present the computer
as an expert on some particular topics.
"An application software system which is used to store data
relevant to a particular subject area and to provide solutions to
problems requiring discriminatory judgments based on that data. The
concepts stem from "Artificial Intelligence" research the data being
built up by the experts in a particular field such that non experts
may subsequently use the systems to guide them to a correct
This area of Artificial Intelligence includes a spectrum of
activities from playing games to planning military strategies.
It involves the study of person/computer interface In simple
It is the field of Artificial Intelligence concerned with the
design, manufacturing, and implementation of computer, controlled
machines with electronic capabilities for vision, speech, and touch.