Features of The Internet:
The Internet offers access to the same Information and services that have been
available through online information services plus much more. For many people,
the Internet has included the functions on libraries, telephones, televisions, catalogs, and that's just a sample of
- US forms Advanced Research Projects
within the Department of
Defense after USSR launches Sputnik, world's first
satellite, in order to compete in science and technology.
- First paper on packet-switching theory published.
- ARPA sponsors study linking computers at MIT and California.
- ARPA network
ARPANET launched by DOD to research networking
- Links UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, and two other points
- First message sent between UCLA and Stanford.
- ARPANET host
computers start using Network
- Internetworking Working Group created to agree on
uniform networking protocols.
- ARPANET connects
to University College London and
Norway's Royal Radar
- FTP established.
- USENET newsgroup established
- TCP/IP established as uniform
communications method for
- TCP/IP use begins.
- ARPANET splits into MILNET for military use and
- NSFNET (National ; Science Foundation Network) launched.
- UUNET begins to offer commercial Net access
- E-mail link between Germany and China goes into operation
- Number of hosts reaches 10,000
- Number of hosts reaches 100,000
- Australia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico,
Netherlands, New Zeeland, UK
connects to NSFNET
- ARPANET dies
- Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) founded
- World's first commercial ISP comes online.
- Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Greece, India, Ireland, . Korea,
Spain and Switzerland connect to NSFNET.
- NSF drops
commercial Net use
- Wide Area
- Gopher launched
- WWW launched by CERN
- Number of hosts now 1,000,000
- Japan launches its first ISP
- Antarctica, Cameroon, Cyprus, Ecuador, Estonia, Kuwait, Latvia, Luxembourg,
Malaysia, Slovakia, Thailand, Venezuela connect to NSFNET.
- InterNIC launched to offer directory, database,
registration, and info services.
- Mosaic (Web
- First Internet shopping malls created.
- First Internet bank robber, Vladimir Levin from Russia, steals millions from
- First on-line pizza ordered from Pizza Hut.
- Real Audio launches
- WWW becomes most popular service on Internet.
- CompuServe, AOL, and other commercial networks start offering Internet access.
- US telecommunication companies ask! Congress to ban I Internet telephone
- US Communications Decency Act becomes a law to censor pornography but Is
promptly halted by a three-judge panel and later ruled unconstitutional
- Restrictions imposed on Internet use:
- Chinese users and ISPs must register with the police
- Germany cuts off access to CompuServe newsgroups
- Singapore political and religious groups on the Internet must register with
- Network Solutions error makes millions of .com and .net domains temporarily
- AOL claims to have 15 million members
- Number of hosts now in excess of 40 million
- $ 3.7 billion worth of goods sold over the I Net
- AOL buys Netscape
- Total revenue from Net, commerce reaches $6.1 billion
- Internet access becomes available to, the Saudi Arabian public in January
- First Internet Bank of I Indiana, the first full! service bank available; only
on the Net, opens for business on 221 February
- IBM becomes the first j corporate partner to be j approved for Internet!
- European Parliament proposes banning the caching of Web pages by ISPs
- US State Court rules that domain names are property that may be prettify
- Technologies of the Year: E-Trade, Online, Banking
Let us Consider the Internet Tools:
The World Wide Web is getting all the headlines, but for many people the main
attraction of the Internet is electronic mail. There are millions of users of
e-mail in the world. E-mail is clearly superior to paper mail for so many purposes that most people who try it
can't imagine going back to working without it. E-mail occupies a
psychological space all its own, it almost as immediate as phone
call, but if you need to, you can think about what you are going to
say and reply when it's convenient.
E-mail, or electronic mail, links computers by wired or wireless connections and
allows users, via electronic mailboxes, to send 'and receive messages.
E-mail has both advantages and disadvantages like voice mail, it helps people
avoid playing phone tag or coping with paper and stamps. A message can be as
simple as a birthday greeting or as complex and lengthy as a report with
supporting documents (including attached text, graphic, video and/or sound
flies). It can be quicker than a fax message and more organized than a
voice-mail message. By reading the list of senders and topics displayed on the
screen you can quickly decide which messages are important, Also e-mail software
automatically creates an archive of all sent and received messages. Sending an
e-mail message usually costs as little as a local phone call or less but it can
go across many time zones and be read at any time. Some e-mail messages are now
received as voice mail and read aloud to the recipient.
However there are some problems; You might have to sort through a large number
of messages every day, a form of junk mail brought about by the ease with which
anyone can send duplicate copies of a message to many people. Mail that travels
via the Internet often takes a circuitous route, bouncing around various
computers in the country in an effort to-find the fastest and most efficient
route. Although a lot of messages may go through in a minute's time, others may
be hung up because of system overload, taking hours and even days. Finally, if
users let their e-mail messages pile up; they may ultimately fill up their
allocated space on the server that is storing them (though some systems
automatically delete stored messages after a period of time).
II. Usenet Newsgroups/ Electronic Discussion Groups:
One of the Internet's most interesting features goes under the name Usenet,
short for "user network", which is essentially a giant, dispersed bulletin
board. Usenet newsgroups are electronic discussion groups that focus on a
specific topic, the equivalent of AOL's (America Online) or CompuServe's
"forums". They are one of the most lively and heavily trafficked areas of the
Usenet users exchange e-mail and messages ("news"). Users post questions,
answers, general information, and FAQ files on Usenet. The flow of messages, or
articles, is extraordinary, and you can get easily hooked. There are more than
15,000 Usenet newsgroup forums and they cover hundreds of topics.
III. Mailing Lists/ E-Mail Based Discussion Groups:
Combining e-mail and newsgroups, mailing lists called listservs, allows anyone
to subscribe (generally free) to an e-mail mailing list on a particular subject
or subjects and post messages. The mailing-list sponsor then sends those
messages to everyone else on that list. Thus, newsgroup listserv messages appear
automatically, in your mailbox; you do not have to make the effort of accessing
the newsgroup. As a result, it necessary to download and delete mail almost
every day, or your mailbox will quickly become full. There are more than 3000
electronic mailing-list discussion groups.
File Transfer Protocol- a common method of moving files between two Internet
sites. FTP connects you to a remote computer called an FTP site and transfer
publicly available files to your own microcomputer's hard disk.
The free file offered cover nearly anything that can be stored on a computer:
software, games, photos, maps, art, music, books, and statistics. You should be
sure to scan all downloaded files and programs for viruses before, opening them.
Some 2000-plus FTP sites (so called anonymous FTP sites) are open to anyone
while others can access only by knowing a password. You can also use FTP to
upload (transfer) your files to an FTP site.
V. Gopherspace / The Hierarchical, Text-Based Menu System:
Several tools exist to help filter through the amazing amount of formation on
the Internet, but one of the most important has been Gopher, which, like FTP,
predates the Web. Gopher is a uniform system of menus, or series of lists, that
allows users to easily browse and retrieve files stored, on different computers
by making successive menu selections.
Why is it called "Gopher"?
Because the first gopher was developed at the home of the Golden
Gophers, the University of Minnesota, and it helps you "go fer" the flies you seek, There is thousand of Gopher servers hooked up to the Internet
The commands and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The
Telnet commands/programs gets you to the login prompt of another host.
This feature, which allows microcomputers to communicate successfully with
mainframes, enables you to tap into Internet computers and access public files
as though you were connected directly instead of, for example, through your ISP
site. Although it is only a text base communication, the Telnet feature is
especially useful for perusing large databases or library card catalogs. There
are perhaps 1000 library catalogs accessible through the Internet, and a few
thousand more Internet sites around the world have Telnet interfaces.
VII. World Wide Web (WWW):
One last feature of the International remains to be discussed, perhaps, for most
general users, the most important one: the World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web, or simply "the Web", consists of an interconnected system of
sites, or servers, all over the world that can store information in multimedia
form, sounds, photos, and video, as well as text. The sites share a form
consisting of a hypertext series of links that connect similar words and
phrases. Note two distinctive features:
- Multimedia form: Whereas Gopher and Telnet deal with text, the Web provides information in
multimedia form graphics, video, and audio as well as text. You can still access
Gopher, FTP, and the like through the Web, but the Web offers capabilities not
offered by these more restricted pioneer Internet tools.
- Use of Hypertext: Whereas Gopher is a menu-based approach to accessing Net resources, the Web uses
a hypertext format. Hypertext is a system in which documents scattered across
many Internet sites and directly linked, so that a word or phrase in one
document becomes a connection to a document in a different place