What is Information System:
Definition and Explanation:
An information system is a formulized set of procedures designed to collect data form both external and internal resources into information suitable for decision making and planning.
Types/Categories of Information System:
There are many types of information system they range from simple manual systems to complex computer based systems. The common thing among all is that they are planned to fit a specific set of information needs for an organization and that they they incorporate the following activities:
a. Capturing Information:
Capturing information means obtaining information at its point of origin. The key to capturing information is in obtaining information its point of origin. Organizations today must strive to capture information only once at its point origin and not require people to re-enter information as they need it.
There are two major consideration when designing an effective method of capturing information. The first is that it must be as efficient and cost-effective as possible. The term GIGO (garbage in garbage out) summaries the danger associated with inaccurate information.
b. Creating Information:
Creating information is the most commonly understood information-processing task. It involves processing to obtain new information. Our previous example of determining the interest on your credit card balance is created by determining your average daily balance and multiplying that amount by the monthly interest rate.
There are several different types of processes that help turn data into information. Typical information system incorporated a number of these processes.
- Data may be summarized, reducing the level of detail.
- Data may be stored alphabetically or numerically into a suitable sequence.
- numerical calculation is used to transform data into more meaningful form.
- Data or transactions may be selected (meeting certain criteria), so that management concentrates on the most meaningful information.
- Comparison may be made measure calculated for different set of data.
- Information displaying certain characteristics may be highlighted so that further investigation may be carried out .
- Data may be stored until it is needed.
|Categories of Information Processing tasks and IT Tools
||Obtaining information at its point of origin
||Input technologies examples:
- Bar code reader
||Presenting information in its most useful form
||Output technologies examples:
||Processing information to obtain new information
||Software technologies examples:
- Word processing
- Expert system
||Storing information for use at a later time
||Storage technologies examples:
||Sending information to other people or to another location
||Telecommunication technologies examples:
c. Conveying Information:
Conveying information is the exact opposite of capturing information. That is, conveying information involves presenting information in its most useful form to people who need it. The key to conveying information is in presenting it in most useful form. That is, do you need information in a graphic form, printed on paper in numeric form, or perhaps presented to you in audio form?
d. Cradling Information:
Cradling information involves storing information for use at a later time. Today information cradling is critical in all organizations. Remember, we are in the information age, and cradling information for use at a later time is important.
e. Communicating Information:
Finally, the last information- processing category is that of communication information. It involves sending information to other people or to an other location. Communicating information is achieved through telecommunications technologies, such as modems, digital pagers, satellites, and microwaves. Forces shaping today's new business, such as globalization and electronic commerce, have made communicating information a must for all organizations.